Friday 9 December 2016

Security auditing tool - Lynis

Have heard about the tool in the past, but hadn't given any try on this... was very simple to go through and here are very few lines on the post...

Ensure you have git client installed on your system we shall clone from

​# cd lynis
# ./lynis audit system 

performs local security scan and will capture all the details in the log file(/var/log/lynis.log)

Then how audit is different from lynis ?

auditd is daemon to track events(like if your /etc/passwd or /etc/shadow file) being changed where as lynis could track file permission etc not the contents in the file. 

  Lynis security scan details:

  Hardening index : 64 [############        ]
  Tests performed : 206
  Plugins enabled : 2

You could explore more on this tool using ./lynis help, anyway would suggest you to give a try

Wednesday 7 December 2016

Installing Vagrant VM with Oracle Virtual Box

You could have a development environment that is identical to the production environment locally and you can share all your development. Once you or someone else creates a single Vagrantfile, just need to vagrant up and everything is installed and configured for you to work. 

If you are system admin/operation engineer, vagrant gives you a disposable environment for developing, testing infrastructure management scripts like shell scripts, check cookbooks, puppet modules etc 

we shall see how this can be configured and how to work on ... 

You could download vagrant software based on your operating system from and install.

I would create a directory called vagrant and would initialize. 

$mkdir ~/workspace/vagrant/centos

$ vagrant init
A `Vagrantfile` has been placed in this directory. You are now
ready to `vagrant up` your first virtual environment! Please read
the comments in the Vagrantfile as well as documentation on
`` for more information on using Vagrant.

$ ls

Download Oracle virtual box, and since you need to download linux environment which can be from
I shall download centos 6.7 minimal along with puppet.

we need to remove Vagrant file if we already incase created in the directory.

$ vagrant init vagrant-centos-6.7
A `Vagrantfile` has been placed in this directory. You are now
ready to `vagrant up` your first virtual environment! Please read
the comments in the Vagrantfile as well as documentation on
`` for more information on using Vagrant.

you would add this box to the provider 'virtualbox' . 

==> box: Box file was not detected as metadata. Adding it directly...
==> box: Adding box 'vagrant-centos-6.7' (v0) for provider:
==> box: Successfully added box 'vagrant-centos-6.7' (v0) for 'virtualbox'!

You can make your setting as you wish in the Vagrant file as its self explanatory , few of my changes which I wished to make 

$ vim Vagrant 

 config.vm.boot_timeout = 60 "forwarded_port", guest: 80, host: 8080 "private_network", ip: ""

we would start the vagrant box which would take some time to bring up the machine..
$ vagrant up
Bringing machine 'default' up with 'virtualbox' provider...
==> default: Clearing any previously set forwarded ports...
==> default: Clearing any previously set network interfaces...
==> default: Preparing network interfaces based on configuration...
    default: Adapter 1: nat
    default: Adapter 2: hostonly
==> default: Forwarding ports...
    default: 80 (guest) => 8080 (host) (adapter 1)
    default: 22 (guest) => 2222 (host) (adapter 1)
==> default: Booting VM...
==> default: Waiting for machine to boot. This may take a few minutes...
    default: SSH address:
    default: SSH username: vagrant
    default: SSH auth method: private key
    default: Warning: Remote connection disconnect. Retrying...
==> default: Machine booted and ready!
==> default: Checking for guest additions in VM...
    default: The guest additions on this VM do not match the installed version of
    default: VirtualBox! In most cases this is fine, but in rare cases it can
    default: prevent things such as shared folders from working properly. If you see
    default: shared folder errors, please make sure the guest additions within the
    default: virtual machine match the version of VirtualBox you have installed on
    default: your host and reload your VM.
    default: Guest Additions Version: 4.3.30
    default: VirtualBox Version: 5.0
==> default: Configuring and enabling network interfaces...
==> default: Mounting shared folders...
    default: /vagrant => D:/HashiCorp/workspace/vagrant/centos

Try to login to box using 'vagrant ssh' 

$ vagrant ssh
Last login: Tue Dec  6 16:34:33 2016
[vagrant@localhost ~]$ uptime
 16:38:27 up 1 min,  1 user,  load average: 0.02, 0.02, 0.00
[vagrant@localhost ~]$

[vagrant@localhost ~]$ sudo yum install httpd
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Setting up Install Process
Determining fastest mirrors

  httpd.x86_64 0:2.2.15-55.el6.centos.2

Dependency Installed:
  apr.x86_64 0:1.3.9-5.el6_2                  apr-util.x86_64 0:1.3.9-3.el6_0.1
  apr-util-ldap.x86_64 0:1.3.9-3.el6_0.1      httpd-tools.x86_64 0:2.2.15-55.el6.centos.2
  mailcap.noarch 0:2.1.31-2.el6


Install your httpd web server and create your own default Apache webpage to display. 

[vagrant@localhost ~]$ sudo service httpd start
Starting httpd: httpd: Could not reliably determine the server's fully qualified domain name, using localhost.localdomain for ServerName
                                                           [  OK  ]
[vagrant@localhost ~]$
[vagrant@localhost ~]$ sudo cat /var/www/html/index.html
Web server is running but no content has been added yet !
Default webpage for this server
[vagrant@localhost ~]$

Point your IP address in the browser and you could see your web applications. this is only a simple configurations as explained using vagrant. 

On your virtual box, below is what you could see while it's running.

More information about this can be looked using 'help' menu .. I would leave this here for the reader to know more .. 
$ vagrant -h
$ vagrant list-commands

Shall try to re-package CentOS6.8(Minimal) and shall explore more on in coming articles..